English Grammar Notes

100 Golden rules of English grammar pdf;English grammar rules pdf for SSC CGL,bank exams

100 golden rules of english grammar pdf,english grammar rules for ssc cgl pdf

Top 100 English Grammar Rules pdf;grammar rules pdf;English grammar rules pdf for SSC CGL CHSL

English grammar rules pdf for SSC CGL CHSL ;English grammar rules pdf for SSC bank exams ;Top 100 English Grammar Rules pdf;grammar rules pdf for SSC CGL CHSL

Note – Link of the PDF is at the bottom of the page

This pdf containing “100 golden rules of English Grammar ” ,covers all the important grammar rules of English.This compilation has been prepared by the experts of EK keeping in mind the pattern and demand of the exams.

🔷100 Golden Grammar Rules/ Most Important grammar rules of English (with examples) for SSC, BANK and other competitive Exams.



Grammar Rules based on NOUN



Note – Link to download the pdf is at the bottom of the page. 


◼️RULE 1

Hyphenated noun does not have plural form.


Example – He gave me five hundred – rupees notes. ❌
He gave me five hundred – rupee notes.✔️

Sumit stays in five – stars hotels. ❌
Sumit stays in five – star hotels. ✔️

◼️RULE 2

Nouns expressing number are used in singular form with numeral adjectives. 


Example – sheetal gave me five dozens pens. ❌
Sheetal gave me five dozen pens. ✔️

Two lakhs people attended the ceremony. ❌Two lakh people attended the ceremony. ✔️

 Lakhs of people attended the ceremony.✔️ (no numeral adjective) 



RULE 3


The collective nouns like committee, jury, house, ministry, police, mob, audience, team, board are used with singular verbs when they are used as a body or a group and not as members.When they are used as members then they take plural verb. 

( ◾Tip – when a group is considered as a single unit, it takes a singular verb and singular pronoun and when it’s considered plural, it takes a plural verb.


Example – The police has become insensitive. ✔️
The police was posted all over the route.❌
The police were posted all over the route. ✔️
The committee have approved expenditure of fifty crores.❌ 
The committee has approved expenditure of fifty crores. ✔️

The committee has not decided on the matter yet. ❌
The committee have not decided on the matter yet. ✔️

Note – when a collective noun like committee, jury etc is not unanimous, it takes plural verb as in this case it’s not considered as a single unit. 


💯Click here for the practice Questions (with detailed solution) based on Noun

◼️RULE 4

If a preposition connects two similar nouns , the noun is used in singular form and takes a singular verb. 


Example – Villages after villages was visited during the last election. ❌
Villages after villages were visited during the last election. ❌
Village after village was visited during the last election. ✔️

💯Click here for the compilation of frequently asked ERROR DETECTION RULES /GRAMMAR RULES in SSC exams

Grammar Rules based on PRONOUN


◼️RULE 5


when the pronouns Each, Every, Neither, Either, Anyone, Many a (possessive adjective)  are used as subject, the possessive case should be third person  singular. They may refer to two or more than two objects or person

Example

Each boy and each teacher is required to bring their luggage. ❌
Each boy and each teacher is required to bring his luggage. ✔️


⚫RULE 6 – some nouns such as Separation , Excuse , Sight, Mention, Report, Pardon, Favour are not used with a noun or pronoun in the possessive form. 

Example

At his sight the robbers fled. ❌
At the sight of him the robbers fled. ✔️



⚫RULE 7 – Both should be followed by ‘and’, not by as well as
Q. Both you as well as (a) /my brother are going to(b) / attend the party tomorrow(c) /No error 


Solution : Error is in (a)

Replace ‘as well as’ with ‘and’

⚫RULE 8 – ‘which’  is used in place of ‘who’ when we are referring to a choice between two or more than two things or persons. 


Q.Of the(a) / two sisters who(b) / is more intelligent? (c) /No error 


Solution : Error is in (b)

Replace ‘who’ with ‘which

RULE 9 – If two antecedents are joined by ‘and’ one being a human and other being an animal /non living thing, a relative pronoun ‘that’ is used. 

 The man and his dog who I saw yesterday have been kidnapped. ❌

The man and his dog that I saw yesterday have been kidnapped. ✔️


⚫RULE 10-11   –
WHO Vs WHOM Vs THAT Relative pronoun

 Relative pronoun ‘ whom’ is used to replace a human object of the sentence, while ‘who’ is used to replace subject of the sentence. 

The boy who came here is a very good singer. ✔️

(‘ Who ‘ has been used for the boy which is the subject of the sentence). 


⚫RULE 11 – Superlative degree, none, no one  anyone, much, little, (the same+noun), (the only + noun) are followed by ‘that’ relative pronoun. 

 Meera  is the smartest girl who I have ever met. ❌
Meera  is the smartest girl whom I have ever met. ❌
Meera  is the smartest girl that I have ever met. ✔️

⚫ RULE 12 – If there is a comparison between  two nominative cases, the pronoun of the nominative case is used after ‘than’  

 Alia is as beautiful as me. ❌
      Alia is as beautiful as I.✔️

⚫ RULE 13 – When a Pronoun is used as the complement of the Verb ‘to be’, it should be in the nominative case.

 If I were her, I would not do it.❌
If I were she, I would not do it.✔️

⚫ RULE 14- When a Pronoun is used as the object of a Verb or of a Preposition, it should be in the objective case.

Let you and I do it.❌
Let you and me do it.✔️

These chocolates are for you and I.❌
 These chocolates are for you and me.✔️


⚫ RULE 15-The Indefinite Pronoun ‘one’ should be used throughout if used at all.

 One must not boast of his own success.❌
 One must not boast of one’s own success.✔️


💯Click here for the Practice questions (with detailed solution) based on Pronoun 

⚫ RULE 16-‘Either’ or ‘neither’ is used only in speaking of two persons or things; ‘any’, ‘no one’ and ‘none’ is used in speaking of more than two.

  Anyone of these two roads leads to the airport.❌
Either of these two roads leads to the airport.✔️

Neither of these three girls did his homework. ❌
No one of these three girls did his homework.✔️

⚫ RULE 17- ‘Each other’ is used in speaking of two persons or things; ‘one another’ is used in speaking of more than two.

The two brothers loved one another.❌
The two brothers loved each other.✔️

⚫ RULE 18- A Noun or Pronoun governing a Gerund should be put in the possessive case.

Please excuse me being late.❌
Please excuse my being late.✔️
(being – gerund, my – Possessive case) 

⚫ RULE 19- A Pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.

 Each of these boys has done their homework.❌
Each of these boys has done his homework.✔️


⚫ RULE 20- When two or more Singular Nouns joined by ‘and’ refer to the same person or thing, a Pronoun used for them must be in the singular.


 The collector and District Magistrate is not negligent in their duty. ❌
The collector and District Magistrate is not negligent in his duty.✔️


⚫ RULE 21-After let, if a Pronoun is used, that Pronoun must be in the Objective Case.


Let he go there.❌
Let him go there.✔️

 

Grammar Rules based on SUBJECT – VERB Agreement 

⚫ RULE 22- If two Singular Nouns refer to the same person or thing, the Verb must be Singular.

The Secretary and Principal are coming.❌
The Secretary and Principal is coming.✔️
(Here the same person is Secretary as well as Principal)

⚫ RULE 23-  If the Singular Subjects are preceded by each or every, the Verb is usually Singular.

 Every boy and girl were ready.❌
 Every boy and girl was ready.✔️

⚫RULE 24- when two or more subjects are joined by  ” as well as, like, unlike, besides, in addition to, and not , with, together with, along with, rather than, no less than, except, nothing but, the verb is used according to the first subject. 

3) Neither Salman  nor his friends is going to the party. ❌
Neither Salman  nor his friends are going to the party. ✔️

⚫RULE 25  – When two or more subjects are connected by ” not only.. But also  , neither… Nor, either.. Or, none.. But”, the verb is used according to the nearest subject. 

💯CLICK HERE FOR THE HINDU PHRASAL VERBS COMPILATION


💯CLICK HERE FOR THE HINDU IDIOMS COMPILATION 



Neither of the two girls(a) / have been invited(b) / to the party(c) /No error

Solution : The error is in (b)
Replace ‘have’ with ‘has’



⚫ RULE 26-  When the Subjects joined by ‘or/nor are of different numbers, the Verb must be Plural, and the Plural Subject must be placed next to the Verb.

Neither the Assistant Masters nor the Headmaster was present.❌
 Neither the Headmaster nor the Assistant Masters were present.✔️

⚫RULE 27- ” Many a/an, More than one” should be followed by singular noun and singular verb. 


Many a men have come to the party. ❌
Many a man have come to the party. ❌

Many a man has come to the party. ✔️

 Other examples


More than one girls were present. ❌
More than one girl were present. ❌
More than one girl was present. ✔️

Many an accident have recently taken place. ❌

Many an accidents have recently taken place .❌
Many an accident has taken place.✔️ 





⚫RULE 28 – The inverted form of Verb is used in the following cases
1) When the sentence is introduced by an adverb. 
2) When the verb is meant to express a wish or prayer. 

Lets see another example:
Hardly had I reached the station when the train arrived. ✔️
May you get great success in life. ✔️



⚫RULE 29 – When the sentence begins with ‘it’, the verb is used according to the subject. 

Let’s take another example 

It is I who is to attend the party. ❌
It is I who am to attend the party.✔️


 It is the apple that are full of antioxidants. ❌
It is the apples that are full of antioxidants. ✔️
It is the apple that is full of antioxidants.✔️

 

 

⚫RULE 30 – Generally, ‘A large number of’  is followed by a singular verb while ‘The large number of is followed by a plural verb. 

A large number of students was absent. ❌
A large number of students were absent. ✔️
The number of tourists have gradually fallen off. ❌
The number of tourists has gradually fallen off. ✔️




⚫RULE 31- If  ‘it’s high time / it’s about time / it’s time is used in a sentence, v2 comes in the sentence.


 It’s high time you start working hard. ❌
It’s high time you started working hard. ✔️


⚫RULE 32 -when a subject becomes  receiver of an action, following verbs take reflexive pronoun : Acquit, Absent, Avail, Reconcile, Amuse, Resign, Adapt, Adjust, Pride etc

  I pride on being able to work smoothly under pressure too. ❌

 I pride myself on being able to work smoothly under pressure too. ✔️

 

 We adapt to the environment.❌
     We adapt ourselves to the environment. ✔️

⚫ RULE 33-  A Collective Noun takes a Singular Verb when the collection is thought of as a whole, a Plural Verb when the individuals of which it is composed are thought of.


For example
 The Council has chosen the President.✔️
 The audience have taken their seats.✔️

⚫ RULE 34-  When the Subject of the Verb is a Relative Pronoun care should be taken to see that the Verb agrees in Number and Person with the Antecedent of the relative.


For example,
I, who is your friend will guard your interests.❌
I, who am your friend will guard your interests.✔️

Grammar Rules based on PARTICIPLE AND INFINITIVE

⚫ RULE 35-  Ask, advise, allow, command, force, forbid, invite, encourage, compel, beg, order,  imagine, instruct, permit, persuade, tell, require, remind, teach, etc. are followed by direct Object and no preposition is used before the object. 


For example,

He advised to me to do it .❌
He advised me to do it.✔️

⚫ RULE 36-Know is followed by how/ where/when/why and Infinitive.


For example,

 I know to write a letter.❌
I know how to write a letter.✔️


⚫RULE 37 –  With the following verbs/adjective/phrases,   (V1 +ing)  is used after ‘to’. 
(Verb +used to) , accustomed to, averse to, with a view to, addicted to, devoted to, in addition to, look forward to, object to, owing to, given to, taken to , prone to etc 

For Example
I am looking forward to meet my friend Sara. ❌
I am looking forward to meeting my friend Sara. ✔️


Sheetal is used to wake up early morning. ❌
Sheetal is used to waking up early morning. ✔️

⚫ RULE 38- After let, bid, behold, watch, see, feel, make etc. we use Bare-Infinitive and not To-infinitive.


For example,
 I heard him to speak on several subjects.❌
I heard him speak on several subjects.✔️

⚫ RULE 39- Bare Infinitive is used after Modal Auxiliaries (can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, dare not, need not).


For example,
 You need not to work hard.❌
You need not work hard.✔️


⚫RULE 40 -Dangling Participle. 
 In the second sentence, if  ‘it’ is not used before being,   ‘I’ becomes the subject of ‘rainy day’ and gives a wrong meaning to the sentence. 

 Being ill, I could not attend the class. ✔️

Being a rainy day, I could not attend the class. ❌

It being a rainy day, I could not attend the class. ✔️

 

⚫RULE 41- If an infinitive(to + V1)  comes after a noun, an appropriate preposition should be used after the infinitive. 

Sheetal has(a) / no achievement (b) to boast(c) /No error 

Solution : Error is in (c)

Use ‘of ‘ after boast



⚫ RULE 42-  Had better, had rather,had as soon … as … , had sooner etc. are fol-lowed by Bare Infinitive.


For example,
 She had better to go now.❌
She had better go now.✔️


⚫ RULE 43-   Conjunction than is also followed by Bare Infinitive.

 She had better read than to write.❌
 She had better read than write.✔️

⚫ RULE 44-  When but is used as a Preposition and preceded by any form of the Verb do, then but is followed with Bare Infinitive.

 Sohan did nothing but to wonder.❌
Sohan did nothing but wonder.✔️

⚫ RULE 45- Every Participle must have a suitable Subject of Reference.

example,
 Being a rainy day Vijay decided to stay at home.❌
It being a rainy day Vijay decided to stay at home.✔️

⚫ RULE 46-  Perfect Participle 
(Having +  v3)    Vs  (Having been +v3) 
(Having + v3) is used when it qualifies  doer of the sentence  while (Having been + v3) is used when it qualifies non-doer of the sentence. 

Handy Tip – If the clause following the perfect participle is in passive voice,we use having been+v3, otherwise having +v3. 

Example
Having typed the letter, it was posted. ❌

Having typed the letter, I posted it. ✔️
Having been typed the letter, it was posted. ✔️

(‘It was posted’ is in passive form so we will use having been +v3. ‘I posted it’ is in active form so we will use having +v3.)

 


⚫ RULE 47-  Participles like considering, judging, referring, concerning, regarding, viewing, broadly speaking etc. do not take any Subject of Reference.

example,

Considering the case, I took the decision.✔️
(Here I is not a Subject of Reference of considering. So, there is no Subject of Reference for ‘considering, still the sentence is correct.) 

 Grammar Rules based on VERB

⚫ RULE 48-  When there are two Subjects in a sentence and they are not in the same Number, then we must have to use separate Auxiliaries (is, are, am, was, were, have, has) for both of them.

Three- killed and one were injured in the mob violence. ❌
 Three were killed and one was injured in the mob violence. ✔️

⚫ RULE 49-  A single Verb should be made to serve two Subjects, only when the form of Verb is same for both the subjects.

 I am fifteen years old and my sister fourteen.❌
I am fifteen years old and my sister is fourteen.✔️

⚫ RULE 50-  Two auxiliaries can be used with one principal Verb, only when the form of the principal Verb is appropriate to both the auxiliaries. 

 She never has, and never will take such strong measures.❌
She never has taken, and never will take such strong measures.✔️


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