English Grammar Notes

100 Golden grammar rules pdf for SSC, BANK

Part 2 of 100 Golden Grammar Rules/Most Important grammar rules for SSC and other competitive Exams;Grammar rules pdf for SSC 

This is the part 2 of the “100 golden grammar rules” with plenty of examples to help you imbibe these rules.This compilation has been prepared by the experts of EK, keeping in mind the pattern and demand of the exams.🔷Part 2 of the “100 Golden Grammar Rules/ Most Important grammar rules (with examples)” for SSC, BANK and other competitive Exams. 

 

⚫ RULE 50-  Two auxiliaries can be used with one principal Verb, only when the form of the principal Verb is appropriate to both the auxiliaries. 

 She never has, and never will take such strong measures.❌
She never has taken, and never will take such strong measures.✔️

⚫ RULE 51- When there is only one auxiliary to two principal Verbs it should be correctly associated with the both.

Ten candidates have passed one failed.❌
Ten candidates have passed, one has failed.✔️

⚫ RULE 52- A Past Tense in the main clause should be followed by a Past Tense in the subordinate clause.

 He succeeded because he works hard.❌
 He succeeded because he worked hard.✔️

⚫ RULE 53- A Past Tense in main clause may be followed by a Present Tense in the subordinate clause when the subordinate clause expresses a universal truth.

My teacher said that the earth moved round the sun.❌
My teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.✔️

⚫ RULE 54-  When the subordinate clause comes after ‘lest’, the auxiliary Verb ‘should’ must be used, whatever be the Tense of the Verb in the main clause.

 We start early lest we shall miss the train.❌
 We start early lest we should miss the train.✔️

⚫ RULE 54-  An Adverb or Adverbial phrase should not be placed between ‘to’ and verbal part of,the infinitive. (This is called the split infinitive).

 I hoped to immediately reply to your mail.❌
I hoped to reply immediately to your mail.✔️

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⚫ RULE 55-  An infinitive should be in the present tense unless it represents’ an action prior to that of the governing Verb.

I should have liked to have gone there.❌
 I should have liked to go there.✔️

⚫ RULE 56-  Gerund if preceded by a Pronoun, that Pronoun must be in Possessive case.

 Sheetal emphasised me going there.❌
 Sheetal emphasised my going there.✔️

⚫ RULE 57- The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used for an action that began in the past time and still. going at the time of speaking~ It is used with, Adverbials of time introduced by ‘since’, ‘for’ and ‘how long.

How long are you working in this office?❌
How long have you been working in this office?✔️

⚫ RULE 58- A Verb when preceded by a Preposition must be the Gerund.

They were punished for come late.❌
They were punished for coming late.✔️

⚫ RULE 59- The Future Indefinite Tense is not used in the clauses of time, place and condition. Here the Present Indefinite Tense is used.

 I shall wait for you till you will finish your work.❌
I shall wait for you, till you finish your work.✔️

⚫ RULE 60-  The Present Perfect Tense is not used with the Adverbs of past time like yesterday, in 1995 etc. Here Past Indefinite Tense is used.

 I have bought a car yesterday.❌
I bought a car yesterday.✔️

The Past Perfect Tense is used to represent the earlier of the two past actions.

 When I reached the station, the train left.❌
When I reached the station, the train had  left.✔️


⚫ RULE 61-   When need or dare is followed by not, it turns into modal auxiliary. In that situation it takes Bare Infinitive ‘and we cannot use needs not or dares not.

He needs not do it.❌
 He need not do it.✔️

Grammar Rules based on ADJECTIVE

⚫ RULE 62-   Adjectives of quantity show how much of a thing is meant. Adjectives of quantity (some; much, little, enough, all, no, any, great, half, sufficient, whole) are used for Uncountable Nuns only.

I ate a few rice. ❌
I ate some rice.✔️

⚫ RULE 63-Numeral Adjectives are used for Countable Noun only and they show how many persons or things are meant or in what order a person or thing stands. 

I have taught my son little things.❌
 I have taught my son a few things.✔️

⚫ RULE 64- When cardinal and ordinal are used together ordinal precedes the cardinal.

The five first girls will be given the chance.❌
The first four boys will be given the chance.✔️

⚫ RULE 65- Later, latest refer to time, latter and last refer to position.

I reached at 11 am,
but she was latter than I expected.❌
I reached at 11 am,but she was later than I expected. ✔️

 Farther means more distant or advanced; further means additional.

My father insisted on farther improvement.❌
My father insisted on further improvement.✔️

⚫ RULE 66- Each is used in speaking of two or more things, every is used only in speaking of more than two.

For example,

 Every of the two boys will get a prize.❌
Each of the two boys will get a prize.✔️
Every of the three boys will get a prize.✔️

⚫ RULE 67- To express quantity or degree some is used in affirmative sentences, any in negative or interrogative sentences.

Have you bought some apples?❌
Have you bought any apples?✔️


⚫ RULE 68-When two qualities of the same person or thing are compared,the Comparative form ‘er’  is not used. (More + Positive degree)  is used for this purpose.

Sheetal is wiser than beautiful.❌
Sheetal is more wise than beautiful.✔️

⚫ RULE 69- When comparison is made by means of a comparative, the thing compared should be excluded from the class of things with which it is compared by using ‘other’ or some such word.

Himesh is cleverer than any boy in the class.❌
Himesh is cleverer than any other boy in the class.✔️

⚫ RULE 70- When comparison is made by means of a superlative, the thing compared should include the class of things with which it is compared.

He is the strongest of all other men.❌
He is the strongest of all men .✔️

⚫ RULE 71-When two persons or things are compared, it is important that the same parts of things should be compared.

The population of Patna is greater than Bhopal.❌
The population of Patna is greater than that of Bhopal.✔️

⚫ RULE 72- Double comparatives and superlatives should not be used.

He is the most cleverest boy in the class.❌
He is the cleverest boy in the class.✔️

⚫ RULE 72- The comparative Adjectives superior inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior prefer, etc., should be followed by ‘to’ instead of ‘than’.

He is senior than me.❌
He is senior to me.✔️

⚫ RULE 73- Adjectives like ‘unique’, ideal,perfect, complete, universal, entire, extreme, chief, full square and round, which do not admit different degrees of
 comparison should not be compared.

It is the most unique thing.❌
It is a unique thing.✔️

⚫ RULE 74- All the Adjectives which refer to the same Noun should be in the same degree of comparison.

He is the wisest and honest worker in the office.❌
Correct- He is the wisest and most honest worker in the office.✔️

⚫ RULE 75-Elder’ and ‘eldest’ should be used for persons only, strictly speaking, they are used for the members of the same family only. ‘Older’ and ‘oldest’ are used for both persons and things.

He is my older brother.❌
He is my elder brother.✔️


  Grammar Rules based on ADVERB

⚫ RULE 76-Too means more than required and it is used with Unpleasant Adjective. So, we cannot use too glad, too happy, too pleasant, too healthy.

I am too glad to meet you.❌
I am very glad to meet you.✔️

⚫ RULE 77-A sentence which is based on ”Too …. To” format, we cannot replace to with so that. If we replace to with so that, too also must be replaced with cannot.

He is too weak so that he cannot walk.❌
He is too weak to walk.✔️
He is so weak that he cannot walk.✔️

⚫ RULE 77-Much too is followed by Unpleasant Adjective, whereas too much is followed by Noun.

Much too + Unpleasant Adjective.

Too much + Noun.

For example
His failure is too much painful for me.❌
His failure is much too painful for me.✔️

His wife’s rude behavior gives him much too pain.❌
His wife’s rude behavior gives him too much pain.✔️

⚫ RULE 78- Quite and all are not used together.
He is quite all right.❌
 He is quite right. ✔️
He is all right. ✔️

⚫ RULE 79- A/An + Fairly + Adjective +
Noun or Rather + A + Adjective For example,

(i) a fairly good book
(ii) rather a difficult problem.
But we cannot use Pleasant Adjective with rather and Unpleasant Adjective with fairly.

For example
It was a rather good novel.❌
It was a fairly good novel.✔️

⚫ RULE 80- Enough, when used as an Adverb, is preceded by a positive degree Adjective or Adverb.

She is greater enough to pardon you. ❌
She is great enough to pardon you.✔️


⚫ RULE 81- ‘At present’ means ‘at the present time’, ‘presently’ means ‘shortly’. These should not be confused.

  Nothing more can be done presently.❌
Nothing more can be done at present.✔️

 He will come back at present.❌
He will come back presently.✔️

⚫ RULE 82-‘Hard’ means ‘diligently’, strenuously’, ‘Hardly’ means ‘scarcely at all’. These two Adverbial forms of ‘hard’ must not be confused.

He tried hardly to win the race.❌
He tried hard to win the race.✔️

Sheetal has eaten hard anything today.❌
Sheetal has eaten hardly anything today.✔️

⚫ RULE 83- ‘Much’ is used before past participles and Adjectives or Adverbs of comparative degree. ‘Very’ is used before the present participles and Adjectives and Adverbs of positive degree.

 The news is much surprising.❌
 The news is very surprising.✔️

I was very surprised at hearing the news.❌
 I was much surprised at hearing the news.✔️

⚫ RULE 84- Ago is always used with Past Indefinite Tense. So, if ago is used in a sentence, that sentence must be in the Past Indefinite Tense.

He has come a month ago.❌
 He came a month ago. ✔️

⚫ RULE 85- The sentence which starts with seldom, never. hardly. rarely or scarcely takes an inverse structure, Le., Verb + Subject – Structure. 

Seldom I had seen such a beautiful sight.❌
Seldom had I seen such a beautiful sight.✔️

⚫ RULE 86-  Inversion is also used in a sentence which starts with here/there/ away/out/up/indoor or outdoor and Main Verb, or Aux + Main Verb is used before the Subject.

 Away Sheetal went.❌
 Away went Sheetal.✔️

 Grammar Rules based on  CONJUNCTION

⚫ RULE 87-  Two Conjunctions should not be used in the same sentence.

Although she was tired, but she still went on working.❌
 Although she was tired, she still went on working.✔️

⚫ RULE 88-  ‘Both’ should be followed by ‘and’. It should be used in the positive sense. In the negative sense, ‘neither’ ….. .’nor, should be used in place of ‘both’.

 Both Rohit as well as Rohan were present there.❌
Both Rohit and Rohan were present there.✔️

⚫ RULE 89-  ‘Either … or’, ‘neither …. nor:‘both and’, ‘not only but also’
should be followed by the same parts of speech.

 He not only lost his ticket, but also his luggage.❌
 He lost not only his ticket but also his luggage.✔️

⚫ RULE 90-  ‘Neither’ should be followed , by ‘nor’, ‘either’ should be followed by ‘or’. Both these should not be con¬fused.

He washed neither his hands or his face.❌
He washed neither his hands nor his face.✔️

⚫ RULE 91-  ‘No sooner’ should be fol¬lowed by ‘than’, not by ‘but’ or ‘then’.

 No sooner do I finish this book then I shall begin another.❌
No sooner do I finish the book, than I shall begin another.✔️

⚫ RULE 92-Hardly’ and ‘scarcely’ should be followed by ‘when’ or ‘before’, but not by ‘than’ or ‘that’.

Hardly did I reach the station, than the train left it.❌
 Hardly did I reach the station when the train left it.✔️

⚫ RULE 93- ‘That’ should not be used before a sentence in Direct Speech and before Interrogative Adverbs and Pronouns in the Indirect Speech.

 He said that, “I shall go there.”❌
 He said, “I shall go there”.✔️

He asked me that who I was.❌
He asked me who was.✔️

Grammar Rules based on PREPOSITION

⚫ RULE 94-  Objective case (of Noun or Pronoun) is used after Preposition.

I do not depend on he.❌
I do not depend on him.✔️

⚫ RULE 95- The Prepositions used after two words must be made clear if these two words are connected by and or or.

 She is conscious and engaged in her work.❌
She is conscious of and engaged in her work.✔️

⚫ RULE 96- If a Principal Verb is used after about, after, at, before. for, from, in, on. to, that Verb must be in ing (V4) form.

You prevented me from do it.❌
 You prevented me from doing it.✔️

⚫ RULE 97-  On, in, at, are not used before today, tomorrow, yesterday, the following day, the next day etc.

 She will go there on tomorrow.❌
She will go there tomorrow.✔️

⚫ RULE 98-  No Preposition is used before the word home. At home is a phrase which bears a different meaning.

Bring a T.V. set at home.❌
Bring a T.V. set home.✔️

⚫ RULE 99-  After Transitive Verbs, like dis¬cuss, describe, reach, order, tell, demand, attack, resemble, ridicule, etc. we directly use the object and no Preposition is used after the Verb.

The poet describes about the beauty of naturel in this poem.❌
The poet describes the beauty of nature in this poem.✔️

⚫RULE 100 – Say/suggest/propose/speak/reply/explain/talk/listen/write is followed by to-Preposition if there is a person in the form of object.

 Sheetal did not reply me.❌
Sheetal did not reply to me.✔️

 Himanshu did not write to a letter.❌
Himanshu did not write a letter.✔️

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