English Grammar Notes

Direct and Indirect speech rules for SSC,Bank exams

Direct and Indirect speech rules for SSC,Bank exams

⏩Link of Compilation of important rules associated with DIRECT-INDIRECT SPEECH OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCES is at the bottom of the post.

🔘IMPORTANT RULES ASSOCIATED WITH DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH FOR SSC, BANK, RAILWAY EXAMS(with examples) :

Direct Narration – It’s a kind of speech which is reported by some other person exactly in the words spoken by the speaker. This speech is placed with inverted commas.
Example- She said to him, “I will give you a book” .

Indirect Narration – It’s a kind of speech which is reported by some other person by using certain conjunctions in place of commas and making necessary changes in the verbs and pronouns of the reported speech. Example – She told him that she would give him a book.

💠CHANGE IN NARRATION:

She says, “I am a lawyer” .
She says that she is a lawyer.

◾RULE –  If the reporting verb is in present or future or reported speech is a universal truth , no changes will be made in the tense of the reported speech.

If the reporting verb is in the past, the tense of the reported speech changes into past as follows

a) Present tense changes into past tense
Present indefinite – -> past indefinite
Present continuous–> past continuous
Present perfect –> past perfect
Present perfect continuous –> past perfect continuous


b) Past tense changes as follows
Past indefinite –> past perfect
Past continuous–> past perfect continuous
Past perfect   –> no change
past perfect continuous –> no change

c) Future tense
Will/shall change into would/should

d) Modals are changed as follows
May –> Might
Can –> Could
Have to –> Had to
Had to –> Had had to
Should –> No change
Must –> No change

🔷LET’S DISCUSS SOME IMPORTANT QUESTIONS NOW
Now that we have solved simple questions from Direct-Indirect speech many times, here we will be discussing ‘not so simple ‘ but important questions).Let’s begin… 

1) She said to me,”while I was dancing, he was singing”.
a)She told me that while she had been singing,he had been dancing.
b)She told me that while she was singing,he was dancing.
C) She told me that while song was being sung by him while she was dancing.
d) None of these

Solution : b is the right answer.

◾RULE – Past continuous doesn’t change when it’s used in time clause.

2) Sara said to me ,”when I met him,he was eating”.
a)Sara told me that when she had met him he was eating.
b)Sara told me that when she had met him he had been eating.
c) Sara told me that when she met him he was eating.
d) None of these

Solution : c
◾RULE – Past indefinite doesn’t change when it is used in time clause.


3) Suhana said ,” I cooked biryani and he prepared boondi raita”.
a) Suhana said that she had cooked biryani and he had prepared boondi raita.
b)Suhana said that she cooked biryani and he prepared boondi raita.
C)Suhana said that she cooked biryani and  boondi raita was prepared by him.
d)None of these

Solution : b
◾RULE – Past indefinite doesn’t change when
it expresses two simultaneous actions.

💯 MOST IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FROM ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE (with detailed solution)  

4) She said ,”Netaji was born in Kolkata”.
a) she told that Netaji was born in Kolkata.
b)she said that Netaji was born in Kolkata.
c)she said that Netaji had been born in Kolkata.
d) None of these

Solution: b
◾RULE – Past indefinite doesn’t change when
it expresses historical past.Say/said without object remains unchanged in the indirect speech.

5) The mother said ,”what will I do with so much money,My son!”
a) The mother asked her son what she would do with so much money.
b)The mother asked her son what she should do with so much money.
c)The mother told her son what she would do with so much money.
d) None of these

Solution : b
◾RULE – ‘will’ changes into ‘should’ when the speaker seeks advice or request.

6) She said ,”need I write a letter?”
a) She asked if she needed to write a letter.
b) She asked if she needed write a letter.
c) She asked if she had to write a letter.
c) None of these

Solution: c
RULE –  ‘Need’ in the reported speech changes into appropriate modals /verb  to fit with  the context.

🔻Handy tip- Memorize the indirect speech of the above question so that you don’t have to mug up multiple concepts.Once you have memorized it, You will be able to solve any question of this pattern.
💯   Most Important questions from ‘Direct and indirect speech’ of imperative sentences


7) He said ,”If I am selected ,I needn’t study further.”
a) He said that If he is selected ,he will not have to study further.
b)He said that If he was selected ,he will not have to study further.
C)He said that If he was selected ,he would not have to study further
d)He said that If he was selected ,he should not have to study further

Solution : c
(c) is the most appropriate option here.  Hence, we will go with (c) 

8) Sneha said to me,”When I was a student I couldn’t go out alone.” 
a) Sneha told me that when she was a student she couldn’t have gone out alone.
b) Sneha told me that when she had been a student she couldn’t have gone out alone.
c)Sneha told me that when she was a student she was not allowed to go out alone.
d)Sneha told me that when she was a student she must not have gone out alone.
Solution : c
◾RULE  -Generally ‘can’ is changed into ‘could’,’could’ doesn’t change but it is changed in case of permission.

💯  CLOZE TEST WITH DETAILED SOLUTION. ATTEMPT IT NOW.. 



9) Suhana said,”I must leave at once “.
a) Suhana told that she must leave at once.
b) Suhana said that she must leave at once.
c) Suhana said that she had to leave at once.
d)Suhana said that she must have to leave at once.

Solution:c, Refer to the explanation of question 11.
◾RULE – ‘Must’ normally does not change when it refers to duty or laws of nature.
Example –


10) Ranveer said to Deepika ,”You must obey your parents “.
a)Ranveer told deepika that she must obey her parents.
b) Ranveer told deepika that she has to obey her parents.
c)Ranveer told deepika that she better obey her parents.
d) None of these

Answer : a ,it refers to a duty so ‘must’ will not change.

Let’s take another example :

11) Deepika said, “I must leave at once”.

a) Deepika told that she must leave at once.
b) Deepika said that she must leave at once.
c) Deepika said that she had to leave at once.
d) Deepika said that she has to leave at once.

Solution : c, because it doesn’t refer to any duty or laws of nature ,it shows urgency so ,must changes into ‘had to’ .

Let’s take one more example

12) Sara said,” I must get up early tomorrow”.
a)Sara said that she must get up early the next day.
b)Sara said that she needs get up early tomorrow.
c)Sara said that she must have to got up early the next day.
d)Sara said that she would have to get up early the next day.

Solution : d
◾Note – here it doesn’t refer to any duty or natures of law,it shows an urgency, so must will change into suitable verb/modal and in this case most suitable is ‘would have to’.

13) Sonakshi said ,”Sonam you must be silent”.
a) Sonakshi said that Sonam must be silent.
b)Sonakshi said that Sonam must have  been silent.
c)Sonakshi ordered  Sonam to be silent.
d) Sonakshi ordered Sonam that she must be silent.

Solution:c
As we see that the sentence doesn’t refer to any duty or laws of nature ,we will change ‘must’.C is the most appropriate option here.Hence ,we will go with option c.
💯Click here for the compilation of important rules associated with NOUN (with examples) 

💯Click here for the compilation of important rules associated with PRONOUN (with examples)

14) Sonal said to Sushmita, “I shall leave Mumbai soon.”
a)Sonal told Sushmita that she should leave Mumbai soon.
b)Sonal told Sushmita that she would leave Mumbai soon.
c)Sonal told Sushmita that she should have  left Mumbai soon.
d)Sonal told Sushmita that she would have left Mumbai soon.

Solution :b
It doesn’t refer to any advice so ‘would’ will be used ,not should.


15) Priyanka said to me ,”We are to leave for temple early “.
a) Priyanka told me that they were to leave for temple early.
b)Priyanka suggested me that they were to leave for temple early.
c)Priyanka told me that we were to leave for temple early. 
d) Priyanka told me that they left for temple early. 

Solution : c
◾RULE – ‘We’ remains unchanged when object ‘me’ is included in the subject.
Click here for the compilation of important rules associated with ADJECTIVE  (with examples)

💯Click here for the compilation of important rules associated with VERB (with examples)

16) The Times of India said,”We are not responsible for any error”.
a)The Times of India said that they are not responsible for any error.
b)The Times of India said that they were not responsible for any error.
c)The Times of India said that it was not responsible for any error.
d)The Times of India said that it were not responsible for any error.

Solution : c
◾RULE  – ‘We’ changes into ‘it’ when we is used by a newspaper or an organization.


17) Sheetal said,”well,I shall accompany you”.
a)Sheetal told that she would accompany me.
b)Sheetal said that she is well to accompany me.
c)Sheetal said that It is fine for her to accompany me.
d)Sheetal said that she would accompany me.

Solution: d
◾RULE – Well / you see / you know/ therefore/so/ yet /but etc ,when these words are used in the reported speech, they don’t change, they generally disappear. 

💯Click here for the compilation of important rules associated with ADVERB (with examples)

💯Click here for the compilation of important rules associated with PREPOSITION (with examples) 

18) Ishaan said ,”you see,you can’t meet the boss”.
a) Ishaan said that try to understand you can’t meet the boss.
b)Ishaan said that you can’t meet the boss.
c)Ishaan said that you couldn’t meet the boss. 
d)Ishaan said that you try to understand you can’t be meeting the boss.

Solution: c
◾Note – Well / you see / you know/ therefore/so/ yet /but etc ,when these words are used in the reported speech, they don’t change, they generally disappear. 


19) My mother said to me ,”Have you completed the project”?
a) My mother asked me if I have completed the project.
b)My mother asked me if I had completed the project.
c)My mother asked me had I completed the project.
d)My mother asked me had I completed the project or not.

Solution : b
◾RULE  – In ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer type questions ‘if’ or ‘whether’ is used in place of inverted commas.


20) The teacher said to me,”Why are you late”?
a) The teacher asked me why I am late.
b)The teacher asked me why I was late.
c)The teacher asked me whether I was late.
d)The teacher asked me whether I was late or not.

Solution: b
◾RULE  – In the sentences beginning with question words (why ,who,when etc) ,inverted commas are replaced by question word itself .
💯Click here for the most important questions from direct and indirect speech of imperative sentences 

21) Natasha said to me ,”When I will come is not certain?”
a) Natasha asked me when she would come was not certain.
b)Natasha told me when she would come is not certain.
c)Natasha told me that when she would come was not certain.
d)Natasha told me when would she come was not certain.

Solution: c
◾RULE – In the sentences beginning with question words (why ,who,when etc) ,inverted commas are replaced by question word itself.But if a clause with interrogative pronoun (question words) is followed by main clause, ‘that’ is used before the question word and this rule also applies to ‘if’ and ‘whether’ in ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer type questions.
For example –


22) Aditya said to me ,”whether I will pass is not certain?”
a) Aditya asked me whether he would pass or not was not certain.
b) Aditya told me whether he would pass or not is not certain.
c)Aditya told me that whether he would pass was not certain.
d)Aditya asked me whether he would pass was not certain

Answer : c

23) Aryan said to his friend,” Could you please lend me some money?”

a)Aryan asked his friend that if he Could lend him some money.
b)Aryan requested his friend that if he Could lend him some money.
c)Aryan asked his friend that if he would lend some money to him.
d)Aryan requested his friend to lend him some money.

Solution: d
◾RULE  – Could / Would / Would like  used as polite request in interrogative sentences are used as follows;
(…Request/advice + object + to…)

Let’s see another example

24) The man said to the girl,”Would you like to have a dinner date with me?”
a)The man asked the girl if she would like to have a dinner date with him.
b)The man requested the girl if she would like to have a dinner date with him.
c)The man requested the girl to have a dinner date with him.
d)The man requested the girl to had a dinner date with him.

Answer : c

💯   Click here for the compilation of important rules associated with DIRECT-INDIRECT SPEECH OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

💯  CLICK HERE FOR THE HINDU PHRASAL VERBS COMPILATION

💯  CLICK HERE FOR THE HINDU IDIOMS COMPILATION 

💯  CLICK HERE FOR THE HINDU VOCAB COMPILATION

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